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Introduction to machu Picchu

Machu Picchu is an Inca city located between the zone of rainy mountain forests and the Andes of Peru, it is strategically located between the valley of the Urubamba River. This Inca city was built in the fifteenth century and then abandoned, its sophisticated architecture and stone walls are famous, they merge huge blocks without the use of any mortar, enigmatic buildings perfectly aligned with stars in the universe and panoramic views that will take away the breath.

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Introduction to Machu Picchu
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The Guard Houses

There are 05 independent buildings located at the entrance to the city of Machu Picchu, located successively one after another, is the first group of buildings that are appreciated. Its location and disposition cause Bingham to call them the guardians’ home, forming an architectural unit associated with the nearby terraces.

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The Guard Houses
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The Agricultural Sector

You see a lot of horizontal platforms cut in the mountain, they served for the cultivation of products of the region, the Incas knew more than 100 variety of plants, food and medicinal as potatoes, corn, quinoa, amaranth, the goose, the olluco, the yucca, etc.Its location and disposition cause Bingham to call them the guardians’ home, forming an architectural unit associated with the nearby terraces.

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Agricultural Sector
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Upper Agricultural Sector

You see a lot of horizontal platforms cut in the mountain, they served for the cultivation of products of the region, the Incas knew more than 100 variety of plants, food and medicinal as potatoes, corn, quinoa, amaranth, the goose, the olluco, the yucca, etc.Its location and disposition cause Bingham to call them the guardians’ home, forming an architectural unit associated with the nearby terraces.

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Upper Agricultural Sector
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Lower Agricultural Sector

You see a lot of horizontal platforms cut in the mountain, they served for the cultivation of products of the region, the Incas knew more than 100 variety of plants, food and medicinal as potatoes, corn, quinoa, amaranth, the goose, the olluco, the yucca, etc.Its location and disposition cause Bingham to call them the guardians’ home, forming an architectural unit associated with the nearby terraces.

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Lower Agricultural Sector
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The Palace of the Princess

It is located next to the Temple of the Sun, which is joined by a beautiful door, are contiguous enclosures. The quality of this room is optimal with sloping walls, the entrance is a magnificent double jamb cover with granite stone. Architecturally we could describe that it presents a quadrangular plant of 02 floors.

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The Palace of the Princess
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The Temple of the Sun

It is accessed by a double jamb doorway, the building is known as Torreon, of finely carved blocks, was used for ceremonies related to the winter solstice on June 21 in Machu Picchu. One of its windows shows traces of having embedded ornaments, which were uprooted at some point in its history, destroying part of its structure, in addition, there are traces of a large fire in the place. In times of the Incas, only the priests and the Inca used these enclosures.

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The Temple of the Sun
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The Royal Mausoleum

In Machu Picchu its located under the Temple of the Sun, this irregularly shaped environment itself a cave with a fine finish. In the center of the enclosure emerges a stone formation carved with stepped modular, undoubtedly it was a royal mausoleum, which is confirmed by the burials found during the excavations, it is not risky to say that it could be a temple for the cult of the dead, in Inca´s time was of great importance because they believed in the reincarnation of the soul.

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The Royal Mausoleum
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House for the Guardians of the Fountains

A large room that lacks a front wall, in whose construction you can see the classic imperial Inca construction, in the walls, there are ornaments that would have served to place objects for personal use, the Incas did not use furniture.

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Huse for the guardians of the fountains
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The Religious Fountains

There are 16 sources arranged in succession in different staggered planes, in turn, there are channels of assembled stones that distribute the liquid element in them. These springs that run through a stone channel of the agricultural sector cross by an aqueduct reach above the Temple of the Sun from where they connect, they were also religious centers where ceremonies of the Inca calendar were held, to inspire renewal and mysticism.

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The Religious Fountains
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The Incas House or The King´s Group

It is known by the name of Incas House or The Kings Group, fulfilled a housing character of a high-status social group. Here the architecture is fine work. In general, this set presents evidence of exclusive room and restricted access.

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The Incas House or The King´s Group
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The Quarry Group

From here we extracted the material for the city of Machu Picchu. You can still see some stones half cut. In some places more frigid than Machu Picchu to break the rocks they used the water to open holes in the rock to introduce water, during the night the water froze and with the sun the next day there was a pressure that cut the rock to then carve it with greater precision, all the stones were transported to their place only with human stencil since the Incas didn´t know animals of load either the wheel, the llamas do not carry much weight, only of 40 to 50 pounds.

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The Quarry Group
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The Sacred Plaza

From this square, you can admire the beauty of the mountains, covered with subtropical vegetation, in the background you can see perpetual snow and the Vilcanota River at the foot. This Plaza is surrounded by temples and from there comes its name. It limits by the north with the main temple. It limits by the South with the house of the high priest. It limits by the east with the temple of the three windows. Bordered by the west with semi-circular foundations that could be a high curved wall that would give more beauty to the whole. Here the popular ceremonies were carried out and also perhaps the Inti Raymi or festivity of the Sun. All the evidence indicate that the place was destined for different rituals.

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The Sacred Plaza
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The High Priest House

It is in front of the main temple, it is a construction of lower architectural quality than the temples on its sides. Its walls are of rustic parameters. Dr. Bingham thought that the high priest in charge of the temples lived here. You can see 04 niches on its sides, Bingham thinks that this site is a late building and will take a few months to build. At the height of the ornate lintels, there are pegs of stones foreign to this area, they are made of pink granite typical of Ollantaytambo and were placed for purposes that are now known.

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The High Priest House
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The Temple of the Three Windows

So-called because it is an enclosure with three large windows facing the Sun. It constitutes one of the most beautiful constructions of Machu Picchu and the fine quality of its construction demonstrates its hierarchy. This site presents evidence of not having been finished. Bingham referred to this site as the Temple of the three windows and stated that he did not find anything in his excavation, however, he explained that at the foot of the three windows and at a depth of 2 to 4 feet he located a large number of decorated sherds and fragments of ceramic vessels and jars, objects thrown from the three windows as offerings to the gods.

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The Temple of the Three Windows
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The Main Temple

This is a construction of three walls, formed by three finely carved stone walls. Its side walls show each 05 trapezoidal cupboards at the same height. The central wall has 07 niches and 06 pegs to place offerings and hang decorative objects. This then leads us to think of a ceremonial or ritual function. This work constitutes one of the finest works of the construction of Machu Picchu. In 1977 Marino Sanchez Macedo excavated inside and outside using Cartesian coordinate methods locating a funerary context in a burial cave that was looted before excavation.

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The Main Temple
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The Temple of the High Priest

At the back of the main temple is this magnificent room of 04 walls. The jambs of the door are formed by cyclopean stones, one of which has no less than 32 angles. The ornaments would have been used to place the ornaments that were worn during religious ceremonies. Presents 05 niches inside the east wall. It has 03 niches in each side wall. It has 02 niches on each side of the access opening By its location, we can deduce that its function was complementary to that of the main temple.

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The temple of the High Priest
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The Intihuatana

It is a hill whose flanks were transformed into terraces, thus taking the form of a polygonal pyramid. High up surrounded by elite buildings is the Intihuatana stone which means where the Sun is moored, one of the most studied objects of Machu Picchu that has been related to a series of places considered sacred from which clear alignments between astronomical events and the surrounding mountains. The Intihuatana fulfilled two functions: 1.Measurement of time, solstice, and equinox by the effect of light and shadow. 2.As an altar stone. Its vertices are directed towards the four cardinal points. This stone is the most important centerpiece of a complex system of astronomical measurements to determine the start and end of agricultural campaigns although it was also apparently used as a ritual altar.

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The Intihuatana
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The Main Plaza

All the Inca cities had large open spaces or squares. These divide the sector of Machu Picchu into 02 areas. Bingham called it Main Square because it was the courtyard of the main temple, the temple of the three windows and the house of the priest. It was the scene of transcendental ceremonies in honor of the deities. Its architecture is of great finesse for the topography of its architectural units and association with funerary contexts that induce to think of a ceremonial function.

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The Main plaza
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The Sacred Rock

This set is located in the urban sector, in which two large enclosures delimit an interior space leaving a rock on the northeast side. It is characterized because some observers find it similar to its profile with some mountains. Many people believe that the outline of a mountain located at the front and, for others, is nothing more than the representation of a crouching puma.

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The Sacred Rock
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The Industrial Sector - Three Gates

Its name is due to the denomination of Bingham, presents three subsets defined symmetrically which were built on the basis of two central axes marked by two dividing walls that determine spaces on both sides so that the subsets of the ends are equal while the one in the center is a little different. It is one of the most extensive sets of Machu Picchu.

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Industrial Sector - Three Gates
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The Industrial District

This neighborhood is considered in the traditional theory as the neighborhood of industry or industrial by the consideration of two elements of stones that by the number of buildings takes this name, so the traditional theory suggests that the buildings were workshops as well as homes of artisans. But in reality as not only in the ideology are the opposite and complementary but also almost all aspects of the life of this people we find also in architecture, therefore, this neighborhood would become the neighborhood of the lunar religion, of the lunar and administrative nobility of the Urin Machu Picchu (lower quarters). On the floor of this room, there are two mortars aligned longitudinally of the enclosure. Some think that this enclosure had no roof, to allow the constellations to be observed in the clear night after filling the mortars with water.

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The Industrial District
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The Cemeteries

They were sacred groups, that is to say, the tombs were sacred places, carefully worked underneath rocks, that protected them from the inclemency of the environment. There are 04 peripheral cemeteries, plus a funerary cave in the cave of the serpent and in the sacred square. The most extensive study of this field was conducted by George F. Eaton who made the most complete collection of tombs in Machu Picchu, as part of the 1912 expedition sponsored by Yale University and the National Geographic of the United States.

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The Cemeteries
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The Temple of the Condor

It is a short central patio, on the stone floor the figure of a condor is sculpted, you can see the head, the beak and the white collar that surround these birds.

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The Temple of the Condor
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The Jail´s Group

This housing group is denominated with the western idea that these constructions are sectors of confinement of freedom of the individuals who commit crimes and that there were two sectors in this area, which are: One for the people in the lower part and another one for the greater individuals. rank in the upper part, both are places of torture, so in the upper apse you can see niches, which in their side jambs at half height have holes through which they passed their hands and then pulled them to break the bones of the arms, then tied to the individual until death ensues, others indicate that in these niches the sentenced were walled.

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Louis Armstrong - Hello Dolly
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